Prophase I

Prophase I

Definition Prophase I of meiosis I involves five stages during which alleles cross over and recombine to form non-identical haploid chromatids. Meiosis I begins with prophase I, followed by prophase II, anaphase I, anaphase II, metaphase I, and metaphase II. Prophase I Glossary of Terms The terms associated with Prophase I of meiosis I are … Read more

Vacuole

Vacuole

Vacuole Definition Vacuoles are organelles found in cells that store solutions or materials. The cell can phagocytoze, or engulf, solutions that have been created and are being stored or excreted. Vacuoles are simply chambers surrounded by a membrane, which prevents the cytosol from being exposed to the contents. Only certain molecules can pass through vacuoles … Read more

Daughter Cells

Daughter Cells

Daughter Cells Definition Daughter cells are produced after a single cell undergoes cell division. During mitosis, one pair of daughter cells is created after one round of DNA replication. During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by 2 rounds of cell division. This creates two sets of daughter cells, each of which … Read more

Calvin Cycle

Calvin Cycle

Calvin Cycle Definition In plants, the Calvin cycle involves chemical reactions that “fix” carbon from CO2 into three-carbon sugars. The three-carbon compounds can later be converted into amino acids, nucleotides, and more complex sugars such as starches by plants and animals. “Carbon fixation” is the process by which most new organic matter is created. Plants … Read more

Telophase

Telophase

Telophase Definition Telophase is the final stage in cell division. During telophase, the nuclear envelopes reform around the new nuclei in each half of the dividing cell. The nucleolus, or ribosome producing portions of the nucleus return. As the cell has finished moving the chromosomes, the main parts of the spindle apparatus fall depolymerize, or … Read more

Labia

Labia

Labia Definition Labia refers to a part of the female genital anatomy that comprises the external region of the vulva (shown below). There are two pairs of labia in human women, termed the labia minora and the labia majora.  The labia minora are the inner folds of skin residing under the labia majora. The labia … Read more

Thymus Gland

Thymus Gland

Thymus Gland Definition The thymus gland is a secretory gland that has an important role in immune function. One of its main secretions is the hormone thymosin. Thymosin stimulates the maturation of T cells, which are derivatives of white blood cells that circulate our system. Thymus Gland Overview T cells help clear the body of … Read more

Isotonic

Isotonic

Isotonic Definition Isotonic is a term used to describe solutions and chemistry and, sometimes, muscles in human biology. In chemistry, a solution is said to be isotonic when it has the same concentration of solutes as another solution across a semipermeable membrane. The use of isotonic in human anatomy is used more rarely. However, it … Read more

Catabolic Reaction

Catabolic Reaction

All living cells undergo catabolism, which is a metabolic reaction. Energy is released during catabolic reactions by breaking down large, organic molecules into smaller, simpler ones. Anabolism, on the other hand, involves the synthesis of complex, organic molecules from smaller components. Examples of Catabolic Reactions The catabolic process breaks down large, complex molecules into smaller, … Read more